Current Topics: Opioid Focus
Journal CME - 2019 September
This online activity educates readers on current developments in the science and clinical practice of anesthesiology.
Successful completion of this activity will enable you to:
- Describe the pharmacologic characteristics of methadone
- Discuss perioperative outcomes
- Identify patient attributes that require methadone dose adjustment
Expiration Date: 8/12/2022
2018 Refresher Courses in Anesthesiology - October - Optimizing Pain Control and Minimizing Opioid Use Following Cesarean Delivery in Breastfeeding Parturients
This lecture summarizes various multi-modalanalgesic options to optimize pain managementpost-cesarean delivery. The role of neuraxialopioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, acetaminophen, gabapentin, wound infiltration, transversus abdominis plane block, and futureanalgesic options will be reviewed. Analgesic drug exposure in breastfeeding neonates, andtechniques to minimize the transfer of analgesics into breast milk will also bediscussed.
Expiration Date: 10/22/2021
Journal CME - 2018 May
Journal CME - 2018 May Background: Multimodal analgesia is increasingly considered routine practice in joint arthroplasties, but supportive largescale data are scarce. The authors aimed to determine how the number and type of analgesic modes is associated with reduced opioid prescription, complications, and resource utilization. Methods: Total hip/knee arthroplasties (N = 512,393 and N = 1,028,069, respectively) from the Premier Perspective database (2006 to 2016) were included. Analgesic modes considered were opioids, peripheral nerve blocks, acetaminophen, steroids, gabapentin/pregabalin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, or ketamine. Groups were categorized into “opioids only” and 1, 2, or more than 2 additional modes. Multilevel models measured associations between multimodal analgesia and opioid prescription, cost/length of hospitalization, and opioid-related adverse effects. Odds ratios or percent change and 95% CIs are reported. Results: Overall, 85.6% (N = 1,318,165) of patients received multimodal analgesia. In multivariable models, additions of analgesic modes were associated with stepwise positive effects: total hip arthroplasty patients receiving more than 2 modes (compared to “opioids only”) experienced 19% fewer respiratory (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.94; unadjusted 1.0% [N = 1,513] vs. 2.0% [N = 1,546]), 26% fewer gastrointestinal (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84; unadjusted 1.5% [N = 2,234] vs. 2.5% [N = 1,984]) complications, up to a –18.5% decrease in opioid prescription (95% CI, –19.7% to –17.2%; 205 vs. 300 overall median oral morphine equivalents), and a –12.1% decrease (95% CI, –12.8% to –11.5%; 2 vs. 3 median days) in length of stay (all P < 0.05). Total knee arthroplasty analyses showed similar patterns. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors seemed to be the most effective modalities used. Conclusions: While the optimal multimodal regimen is still not known, the authors’ findings encourage the combined use of multiple modalities in perioperative analgesic protocols.
Expiration Date: 04/16/2021
Journal CME - 2018 July
Background: The value of intravenous acetaminophen in postoperative pain management remains debated. The authors tested the hypothesis that intravenous acetaminophen use, in isolation and in comparison to oral, would be associated with decreased opioid utilization (clinically significant reduction defined as 25%) and opioid-related adverse effects in open colectomy patients. Methods: Using national claims data from open colectomy patients (Premier Healthcare Database, Premier Healthcare Solutions, Inc., USA; 2011 to 2016; n = 181,640; 602 hospitals), we separately categorized oral and intravenous acetaminophen use: 1 (1,000 mg) or more than 1 dose on the day of surgery, postoperative day 1, or later. Multilevel models measured associations between intravenous or oral acetaminophen and (1) opioid utilization and (2) opioid-related adverse effects. Percent change and multiplicity-adjusted 99.5% CI are reported. Results: Overall, 25.1% of patients received intravenous acetaminophen, of whom 48.0% (n = 21,878) received 1 dose on the day of surgery. In adjusted analyses, particularly more than 1 dose of intravenous acetaminophen (versus nonuse) on postoperative day 1 was associated with a -12.4% (99.5% CI, -15.2 to -9.4%) change in opioid utilization. In comparison, a stronger reduction was seen in those receiving more than 1 oral acetaminophen dose: -22.6% (99.5% CI, -26.2 to -18.9%). Unadjusted group medians were 550 and 490 oral morphine equivalents, respectively. Intravenous versus oral differences were less pronounced among those receiving more than 1 acetaminophen dose on the day of surgery: -8.0% (99.5% CI, -11.0 to -4.9%) median 499 oral morphine equivalents versus -8.7% (99.5% CI, -14.4 to -2.7%) median 445 oral morphine equivalents, respectively; all statistically significant, but none clinically significant. Comparable outcome patterns existed for opioid-related adverse effects. Conclusions: The demonstrated marginal effects do not support routine use of intravenous acetaminophen given alternative nonopioid analgesic options.
Expiration Date: 06/18/2021